Gysel, Leslie W.
Ecology of a Red Pine (Pinus Resinosa) Plantation in Michigan
Ecology, Vol. 47, #3, Late Spring, 1966, pp. 465-72.
Ecological Society of America
Ithaca, NY
Original Date

Abstract: A savanna—like area of 1,302 acres in northern Michigan was planted from 1919 to 1923 with red pine (Pinus resinosa), a species not common in local plant communities at that time. Its high survival resulted in marked changes in plant species composition and cover. The plantation could be considered an artificial community. On a designated natural or unplanted area of 122 acres adjacent to the pine plantation, jack pine (P. banksiana) and northern pin oak (Quercus ellipsoidalis) developed as the dominant tree species. The structure and composition of this community, other than the tree overstory, are similar to that of the red pine plantation. Many areas remained open after the planting; in 1938, 15% of the total area was open and in 1963, 8% remained open. Lichens form a large part of the cover in these openings; a few species of grasses, sedges, and shrubs have a high frequency but form a small amount of plant cover. Animal and bird species commonly found in northern Michigan are sparse in the plantation and in the unplanted area. Populations of white—tailed deer, snowshoe hare, and ruffed grouse have decreased during the development of the plantation.

  • Bookwood Historical Collection, Star Lake
  • UW Madison/Wis Hist Soc