Earthworms

  • Article

    Rarely in the discussion of invasive species are earthworms mentioned. However, they are not native to North America, and especially not in areas affected by the Ice Age which probably destroyed them in this region. The common night crawler was introduced through European settlements, perhaps through Jamestown. Mann, 2007, pp 34-6 They move slowly, but their use as bait by a highly mobile America in the 20th century has established them in the northern forest. They eat the leaf litter, upon which seedlings depend. It is still unclear the full impact they may have on the forest, but it very likely will be, and is, significant.

    Charles P. Forbes
    July 30, 2007
  • Bibliography

    Comprehensive References

    ****. Earthworms Are Not Native to Wisconsin's Forests. [NHAL State Forest Visitor Guide 2012, p 19.] Boulder Junction, 2012. View Full Entry (Full text available)
    Addison, J. A.. Distribution and impacts of invasive earthworms in Canadian forest ecosystems. [BIOLOGICAL INVASIONS Volume 11, Number 1 (2009), 59-79, DOI: 10.1007/s10530-008-9320-4] Dordrecht, Holland, 2009. View Full Entry
    Deatsman, Rebecca. Little Worms, Big Consequences. [Wisconsin Natural Resources Magazine, Vol. 36. #6, Dec. 2012, pp 22-24.] Madison, 2012. View Full Entry (Full text available)
    Sharka, Rod. Got Worms?. [Partners News, January, 2014, p. 6.] Conover, 2014. View Full Entry (Full text available)
    Solomon, Julie. Reasonable Expectations. [PUB ER-655-2007] Madison, 2007. View Full Entry

    Major References

    Tiunov et al.. Invasion Patterns of Lumbricidae Into the Previously Earthworm-free Areas of Northeastern Europe and the Western Great Lakes Region of North America. [BIOLOGICAL INVASIONS Volume 8, Number 6 (2006), 1223-1234, DOI: 10.1007/s10530-006-9018-4] Dordrecht, Holland, 2006. View Full Entry
    Buckles, Julie. Wisconsin's Disappearing Forest. [Site Lines, A Journal of Place. Vol. 13, #1, Fall, 2017] New York, 2017. View Full Entry (Full text available)
    Conover, Adele. Foreign Worm Alert. [Smithsonian, 31:5, August, 2000, p. 29.] Washington, 2000. View Full Entry
    Estante, Sophia. Worming into New Territory. [Wisconsin Natural Resources, Vol. 29, #4, August, 2005, pp. 24 ff.] Madison, 2005. View Full Entry (Full text available)
    Holdsworth, et al.. Regional extent of an ecosystem engineer: Earthworm invasion in northern hardwood forests. [Ecological Applications 2007;17(6):1666-1677.] Tempe, AZ, 2007. View Full Entry
    Loss and Blair. Reduced density and nest survival of ground-nesting songbirds relative to earthworm invasions in northern hardwood forests. [ Conservation Biology doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2011.01719.x.] Boston, 2011. View Full Entry
    Malakoff, David. Early Worm Gets the Bird. [Conservation, Creative Ideas for a Greener Future, 2011] Seattle, 2011. View Full Entry (Full text available)
    Mann, Charles. Legacy of Jamestown: America, Found & Lost. [National Geographic, Vol. 211, #5, May 2007, pp. 32-55.] Washington, 2007. View Full Entry (Full text available)
    Ostergren, Robert C. and Thomas R. Vale, eds.. Wisconsin Land and Life. Madison, 1997. View Full Entry
    Panci, et al.. Worms. [Northbound, Vol. 30, #2, Spring/Summer 2012.] Eagle River, 2012. View Full Entry
    Resner, et al.. Elemental and mineralogical changes in soils due to bioturbation along an earthworm invasion chronosequence in Northern Minnesota. [Applied Geochemistry Volume 26, Supplement, June 2011, Pages S127–S131] New York, 2011. View Full Entry
    Loss et al.. Invasions of non-native earthworms related to population declines of ground-nesting songbirds across a regional extent in northern hardwood forests of North America. [LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY Volume 27, Number 5 (2012), 683-696, DOI: 10.1007/s10980-012-9717-4] The Hague, 2012. View Full Entry
    Sperling, David. Invasion at a Slow Crawl. [Wisconsin Natural Resources, Vol. 31, #3, June, 2007, Special Report] Madison, 2007. View Full Entry (Full text available)
    Williams, Bernie. Keep Worms Out of Wisconsin's Woods. [NAHL State Forest Visitor's Guide 2013, p. 11.] Minocqua, 2013. View Full Entry

    Minor References

  • Links
  • Images
  • Miscellany