Native American Era in Wisconsin
There is evidence that native peoples moved into what is now Wisconsin immediately behind the retreating glacial ice sheets. According to Dr. David Overstreet, Director of the Center for Archaeology Research at Marquette University, "These sites [in Door County] are contributing proof that people were living at the margins of the retreating ice sheets, hunting wooly mammoths and bison as they followed the advance and retreat of glaciers across the state." [Walloch: Earliest Riparians] He continues: "These early people developed sophisticated scavenging, hunting and boat building strategies to deal with their fluctuating environment." According to Andrew Walloch, writing in Lake Tides (2004), "Since Dr. Overstreet's discovery of a Paleo-Indian site near Pleasant Prairie in Kenosha County, Wisconsin in 1987, he has been piecing together the early human history of the upper Great Lakes.." [Ibid.]The sites suggest native people in the upper great lakes about 9000 B.C.E.
[This topic has just been started; much more needs to be written. Authors are invited.]Charles P. ForbesAugust 24, 2006
Comprehensive ReferencesLoew, Patty. Indian Nations of Wisconsin. Msdison, 2001. View Full Entry
Major References****. Mazina'igan. Odanah, WI, 2007. View Full Entry****. McCord Indian Village--Living History. [Columns, Vol. 28, #4, p. 7.] Madison, 2000. View Full Entry (Full text available)****. Manitowish Waters Prehistoric Overview. [Page on the Manitowish Waters Historical Society Webpage] Manitowish Waters, 2020. View Full Entry (Full text available)****. Wisconsin "The Northwoods Headwaters Region". Unk, 1991. View Full Entry (Full text available)Arzigian, Constance. Prehistoric Native American Use of Nuts and Berries from the Forests of Wisconsin. [Proceedings of the 20th Annual Meeting of the Forest History Assn. of WI, Sept. 9-10, 1995] Plover, WI, 1995. View Full EntryBeider, Rober. Native American Communities in Wisconsin 1600-1960. [A North Coast Book] Madison, 1995. View Full EntryBirmingham and Eisenberg. Indian Mounds of Wisconsin. Madison, 2000. View Full EntryBloomfield, Leonard. Menominee Lexicon. [Milwaukee Public Museum Publications in Anthropology & History, No. 1] Milwaukee, 1975. View Full EntryBokern, James. Canoe Routes of the Chippewa. [M.S. Thesis] Stevens Point, 1987. View Full Entry (Full text available)Bowden, Charles. Native Lands. [National Geographic, Vol. 218, #2, August 2010] Washington, 2010. View Full EntryBruhy, Mark. Zarling Lake Site. [Wisconsin Archeologist, Vol. 83, No. 2, July-Dec. 2002, pp. 55-75/] Milwaukee, 2002. View Full EntryBruhy and Wackman. Test Excavations at the Butternut Lake Site. [The Wisconsin Archeologist, Vol. 61, #4, New Series, Dec. 1980] 1980. View Full EntryCalkins, Hiram. Indian Nomenclature. [Wisconsin Historical Collections, Vol. 1, pp. 119-126.] Madison, 1903. View Full Entry (Full text available)Callicott, Baird. Brief History of the American Land Ethic Since 1492. [Inner Voice [Journal], January February, 1994, Pp. 5-9.] Eugene, OR, 1994. View Full Entry (Full text available)Danziger, Jr.. Chippewas of Lake Superior. [The Civilization of the American Indian Series, Vol. 148.] Norman, 1979. View Full EntryDavis, Mary. Eastern Old-Growth Forests. Washington, 1996. View Full EntryEgan-Bruhy and Bruhy. Zarling Lake Site (47 FR-186): A Northern Oneota Site in Forest County, Wisconsin.. [Wis Arch News, 2:2, 2000, p 3] Milwaukee, 2000. View Full EntryGartner, William. Four Worlds Without an Eden: Pre-Columbian Peoples and the Wisconsin Landscape. [Ostergren and Vale, eds, Wisconsin Land and Life, Chap. 17, P. 331] Madison, 1997. View Full EntryGreat Lakes Indian Fish & Wildlife Commission. Gidakiiminaan (Our Earth). [Paperback and CD Versions] Odanah, WI, 2007. View Full EntryGrossman, et al.. Upland and Northern Forests. [Chapter 4 of Our Vanishing Wiolderness.] New York, 1969. View Full EntryHathaway, Joshua. Indian Names. [Wisconsin Historical Collections, Vol. 1, Pp. 116-118] Madison, 1903. View Full Entry (Full text available)Hibbard, Benjamin. Indian Agriculture in Southern Wisconsin. [Wis. Conservation Bulletin, March 47, V12#3. p.18.] 1947. View Full EntryHill, Mark. New Dates for Old Copper. [The Wisconsin Archeologist, Vol. 92, No. 2, July-Dec 2011] Milwaukee, 2011. View Full EntryHodges, Glenn. Tracking the First Americans. [National Geographic, Vol. 227, #1, January, 2015. Pp. 124-137] Washington, 2015. View Full EntryHuntington, Ellsworth. Red Man's Continent, The; A Chronicle of Aboriginal America. [The Yale chronicles of America Series] New York, 1919. View Full EntryHunzicker, David. Little Rice Lake Site. [Wis. Archeologist, 83:1, Jan-June 2002, pp. 45-62.] Milwaukee, 2002. View Full EntryJalbert, Andrew. Wisconsin's Ancient Canoes. [Wis Arch News 3:1, 2001, p. 6] Milwaukee, 2000. View Full EntryJames, George. Indian Basketry. New York, 1972. View Full EntryJosephy, Alvin. 500 Nations. New York, 1994. View Full EntryKanetzke, Howard, Ed.. Wisconsin Indians. [Badger History, 1965] Madison, 1965. View Full EntryKanetzke, Howard, Ed.. Wisconsin Indians, II. [Badger History Vol. XXI, #2, Nov. 1967] Madison, 1967. View Full EntryKrech, Shepard. Ecological Indian, Myth and History. NY, 1999. View Full EntryLa Farge, Oliver. Pictorial History of the American Indian. New York, 1956. View Full EntryLapham, Increase. Wisconsin: Its Geography and Topography, History, Geology, and Mineralogy..... [Second Edition, Greatly Improved, is contained on the CD "Wisconsin" which is number 2119 in this bibliography] Milwaukee, 1846. View Full Entry (Full text available)Lurie, Nancy. Wisconsin Indians. [Revised and Expanded Edition] Madison, 2002. View Full EntryMann, Charles. 1491, New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus. NY, 2005. View Full EntryMartin, Paul. Twilight of the Mammoths. [Organisms and Environments, ed. by Harry W. Greene] Berkeley, 2005. View Full EntryMontaigne, Fen. Fertile Shore. [Smithsonian Magazine, Vol. 50, #9, Jan.-Feb. 2020, pp. 30-41, 110-112] Washington, 2020. View Full EntryNeusius and Gross. Seeking Our Past. [Textbook and Student CD] New York, 2007. View Full EntryOstergren, Robert C. and Thomas R. Vale, eds.. Wisconsin Land and Life. Madison, 1997. View Full EntryPohlman, et al. (ed.). Wisconsin Land Legacy Report. Madison, 2006. View Full EntryQuimby, George. Indian Life in the Upper Great Lakes. Chicago, 1960. View Full EntryRitzenthaler, Robert. Vilas County Serpent Mound. [Wisconsin Archeologist, Vol. 28, No. 3, Sept. 1947] Milwaukee, 1947. View Full EntryRitzenthaler, Robert and Pat. Woodland Indians. Prospect Heights, IL, 1991. View Full EntrySalzer, R. J.. Wisconsin North Lakes Project. [Aspects of Great Lakes Anthropology, Minnesota Prehistoric Archaeology Series, No. 11] St. Paul, 1974. View Full EntrySatz, Ronald. Chippewa Treat Rights. [Wis. Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters, Transactions Vol. 79, #1.] Madison, 1991. View Full Entry (Full text available)Shea, John. Indian Tribes of Wisconsin. [Wisconsin Historical Collections, Vol. 3, pp. 125 ff.] Madison, 1903. View Full Entry (Full text available)Silverberg, Robert. Mound Builders. Athens, Ohio, 1986. View Full EntrySmith, Alice. From Exploration to Statehood. [The History of Wisconsin, Volume I] Madison, 1985. View Full EntryStanding Woman and Steve Comer. Old-Growth Forests: A Native American Perspective. [In: Davis: Eastern Old-Growth Forests, Chapter 8. (See Bibliography entry)] Washington, 1996. View Full EntryTheler and Boszhardt. Twelve Millennia. [A Bur Oak Book] Iowa City, 2003. View Full EntryTime-Life Books, Editors. People of the Lakes. [The American Indians] Alexandria, VA, 1994. View Full EntryUS Agriculture, Dept. of, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. Proceedings--Symnposium and Workshop on Wilderness Fire, Missoula, MT Nov. 1983. [US Forest Service General Technical Report INT-182] Ogden, UT, 1985. View Full EntryUS, Interior, Dept. of, Bureau of Indian Affairs. Indians of the Great Lakes Area. Washington, 1968. View Full EntryWalloch, Andrew. Earliest Riparians, Ancient Wisconsin Lakes Uncovered. [Lake Tides, Vol. 29, #2, Spring 2004, pp. 9-10.] Stevens Point, 2004. View Full EntryWarren, William. History of the Ojibway People. [Borealis Books (Reprints)] St. Paul, 1984. View Full EntryWennersten, John. The Chesapeake Environment. [Maryland Historical Magazine 91:2, Summe, 1996, pp.156-179] Baltimore, 1996. View Full EntryWhitney, Gordon. From Coastal Wilderness to Fruited Plain. New York, 1994. View Full EntryWisconsin Archeological Society. Index Issue. [Wisconsin Archeologist 81:1&2, Jan-Dec. 2000.] Milwaukee, 2000. View Full EntryWissler, Clark. Indians of the United States. [Revised Edition by Lucy Wales Kluckhorn. The Natural History Library] Garden City, NY, 1966. View Full EntryWyatt, Barbara. Cultural Resource Management in Wisconsin. Washington, 1986. View Full EntryWyman, Mark. Wisconsin Frontier. Bloomington, IN, 1998. View Full Entry